Integrated Waste Management

Integrated Waste Management

Integrated waste management is an Unique Technology developed by BIOTECH for the treatment of all type of waste generated from different places like Market, Slaughter House and from Road Sweeping. There are Five technologies incorporated in a single treatment plant. The major technology is BIOMETHANISATION. It is for easily degradable materials like fish waste, meat waste and food waste. Bio Cinarator-For slow degradable waste like dry leaves, plant parts, paper etc.  Leach Bed-For slow degradable vegetables, green leaves etc. Waste water Treatment  (UASB Reactor)-Treatment and recycling of waste water from Anaerobic Treatment Plant.  Vermi Compost -For final treatment of treated residue from leach bed and Anaerobic Reactor

Why Integrated Waste Management

Now a days the treatment of waste without pollution is an important task. The total waste Management means that treatment of waste including solid waste and waste water. But the treatment of any one type of waste for temporary remedy creates more pollution including water pollution. The treatment plants installed for the treatment of Fish Market Waste and Slaughter House Waste are not capable to treat other degradable waste like dry leaves and other plant parts. If Bio methanisation technology utilizing for the treatment of vegetable waste contains more fibre, it creates more scum in the Biogas plants. It reduces the efficiency of the plant. The treatment of all waste with the help of incinerator is also creates severe environmental problems. Windro composting is also creates air pollution. To overcome all this problems, the adoption of treatment technology will be suitable to the structure of waste. Waste generates from different places and different conditions having different structure. So the treatment method should be different. Through the years of experience in the field of waste management BIOTECH has developed an Integrated Waste Management Structure to manage all type of waste material.

Advantages of  Integrated Waste Management (IWM)

Through the adoption of multi technologies IWM reduce the volume of waste considerably.So the area required for the treatment plant is very less than other technologies.           The effluent form the treatment plant is recycling through the recycling system.So the waste water discharge from the plant is very less than other technologies.This reduces the use of fresh water for the daily operation of the plant.The electrical equipments in the plant is working with the help of electricity generated on the plant.To minimize the area required for the treatment the dry plants parts are treating in the biocinarator. The fuel from the operation of  BIOCINARATOR is Biogas – which is generated in the plant itself.

Vzhinjam- A success story

Business Model and Financial viability of
family size bio waste treatment biogas plants

 installed by BIOTECH, Kerala
 in Vizhinjam Grama Panchayath, Thiruvananthapuram District

Vizhinjam is one of the nearest Grama Panchayaths in the Thiruvananthapuram Town. (Now Vzhinjam is the part of Trivandrum Corporation) The Kovalam the most attractive tourist place in Kerala is in Vizhinjam Grama Panchayath. Like any other thickly populated place huge quantity of wastes is being generated day by day. There was no proper waste treatment system. Due to this, the organic waste was being accumulated in public places and this created several health and environmental problems. The Grama Panchayath committee came to know that BIOTECH is capable of handling this problem in a successful manner. The then (2005) President Mr. Mukkola Prabhakaran visited BIOTECH in this context and discussed about the possibility of the disposal of waste in a hygienic way. Based on experience of several years in the field of waste management BIOTECH undertook this challenge.

Awareness Programme for Grama Panchayath members

 As a beginning BIOTECH conducted an awareness programme for the Grama Panchayath
members with a view to educating them about the possibility of hygienic disposal of waste and the generation of energy from waste.  BIOTECH conducted a site visit along with the members of the Grama Panchayath and the beneficiaries who have already installed these plants. It has been observed that all of them were fully convinced and highly impressed about the performance of these plants. After this visit they had discussed about the various aspects connected with the implementation of this domestic system in a larger scale and requested BIOTECH to conduct an awareness programme for the benefit of the public in the Vizhinjam Grama Panchayath and also requested to submit a concept proposal.

Awareness Programme for the Public

BIOTECH conducted an one day seminar for the benefit of the public to explain and demonstrate about the need for the hygienic waste disposal and for the generation of renewable energy from waste. In the seminar more than 1000 families actively participated and at the end of the seminar they all have shown interest for the installation of family size bio waste treatment biogas plants. BIOTECH issued the related application forms and collected the required details from the participants. In the seminar as many as 800 applications were received for the installation of domestic plants. BIOTECH evaluated the applications and decided to conduct a feasibility study.

Selection of volunteers

For the effective feasibility study BIOTECH selected volunteers from among those who were interested and experienced in field survey and evaluation. Accordingly 30 volunteers were selected and they were trained for a period of one week for the  selection of suitable sites for the installation of plants in houses after assessing the availability of feed materials, transportation facilities etc.

In addition to the volunteers, 10 technical experts from BIOTECH had also been selected to closely observe the programme under the supervision of a Programme Officer who was competent to implement this project.

Feasibility Study

The trained volunteers conducted the feasibility study and selected 600 applicants as a first
phase after collecting preliminary documents from the beneficiaries. The volunteers were also provided with the second stage training for the installation of the plants.

Approval of the Project

After getting the concept proposal approved by the  Grama Panchayath BIOTECH prepared  detailed project proposals and submitted them along with the 600 applications collected from the beneficiaries. The Grama Panchayath decided to install 575 plants as a first phase.

Application of the technology and model of the plant

Bio methanization technology was selected for the hygienic disposal of waste. The main advantage of this system is that along the solid waste, organic waste water can also be treated hygienically. Another main advantage is that biogas – a renewable source of energy and organic fertilizer can also be produced.

The model of the treatment plant selected is floating dome model with Re-inforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Digester. The specialty of this model is that the installation of the digester can be completed within four hours. In the brick constructed digester model the installation time is between 6 to 7 days and the need of skilled technician is highly essential. But in the case of RCC digester model any semi skilled person can undertake the installation of the digester successfully. The installation cost is also cheaper compared to traditional models. The RCC digester with fibre glass floating dome model plant as designed and developed by BIOTECH had been approved by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India.

Project Cost

The installation cost of 1 Cum plant was Rs. 8,200/- out of which Rs. 4000/- will be the  financial support of the Grama Panchayath, Rs. 3,500/- the subsidy from Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and Rs. 700/- is the beneficiary share. For the implementation of 575 plants the Grama Panchayath had spent Rs. 23 lakhs and the subsidy from MNRE is Rs. 20  where as the beneficiary share was Rs. 4.00 The total cost of the project was Rs. 47  lakhs.

In addition to the beneficiary share all beneficiaries are to be involved for the excavation of the pit, and the procurement of the cow dung for the initial feeding of the plant.

Production and supply of materials

BIOTECH decided to start the local production of digesters so as to avoid the delay in the implementation of the project and to minimize transportation expenses.

Installation of Plants

For the timely successful completion of the project BIOTECH decided to select the unemployed youths for the installation of the plants. 20 persons were selected and trained for the purpose. The trained peoples have been arranged into 10 groups and each group was to install one plant per day. As a result of this the installation team of BIOTECH was able to complete the work  within 60 working days.

BIOTECH is producing and supplying gas collector, stoves and gas supply pipe lines from its own centralized production centre.

Activation of the plants

The beneficiaries will start the feeding of the plant as per the guidance of technicians provided by BIOTECH.  After feeding, the gas holder has to be fixed in the digester and pipe lines are to be properly connected. For this purpose BIOTECH had issued instructions in the form of Users Manual to all beneficiaries and also providing training in waste feeding and operation of the plant.

Preparation of documents

After the successful installation of each plant BIOTECH will collect subsidy applications from the beneficiaries and will take photograph of each plant along with beneficiaries for future records.

Follow up activities after the installation

After the completion of the installation of the plants BIOTECH started an information counter with a trained technician for providing service support to the beneficiaries. On getting the request from the beneficiaries for the servicing of the plants, this technician will be visiting the plants and rectifying the minor defects.

Evaluation of performance of plants

BIOTECH will be conducting performance evaluation survey on half yearly basis. During the evaluation it has been observed that all plants are working without any problem. After the successful completion of three years BIOTECH had conducted evaluation programmes of the plants installed and found that 98 % plants are working perfectly. 2% plants are not functioning properly due to the shifting of accommodation and other personal inconvenience of beneficiary concerned.

Benefits of the scheme

a.         Beneficiaries :- Each beneficiary is able to treat 2 Kg. of organic waste and 20 – 30 litres of waste water generated from the Kitchen. With the help of their own bio waste treatment biogas plants each beneficiary can produce 1 Cum  biogas every day. It is sufficient to meet  more than 50% of their cooking needs. The treated organic waste water coming out from the plant is utilized for the vegetable cultivation in the kitchen garden.

b.         Local Bodies :- Through the installation of 575 plants the Grama Panchayath was able to manage the effective treatment of 1150 Kg. of waste at the source itself where they are generated. The organic waste water discharged from the houses can also be treated in the houses itself. In this way 17250 litres of organic waste water is also being treated anaerobically. Ultimately the health condition of the beneficiaries who have installed these plants have been improved. Now they are not throwing out their own organic waste and waste water to the neighbors grounds or in public places.

Environment Benefits

Through the installation of 575 plants everyday, 575 Cum biogas is being captured from organic waste materials and waste water. The annual biogas recovery is 209875 Cum. It is equivalent to 2012 metric tons of carbon di oxide.

Financial Benefits

1 Cum biogas is equivalent to 0.5 Kg. of LPG. Through the installation of 575 plants  the consumption of 104937 Kg. of LPG can be saved every year. Through the utilization of carbon credits from the plants every year each beneficiary is able to generate 3.5 CDM. BIOTECH is in the preparation of CDM project for providing the benefits to all the 575 beneficiaries.

This type of decentralized waste to energy plants help the public to participate in renewable energy generation and environmental protection activities at a time. For these the liberal support from the Government as well as from Private Institutions are highly essential. 

Story of green pammal, Chennai

(Module digester model )
In Chennai, The capital of Tamilnadu, India

BIOTECH has designed and installed a compact and pre fabricated Bio waste to Electricity plant at Sri Sankar Nagar, Pammal, Chennai, the Capital of Tamil Nadu, India. This plant has been installed in association with Exinora Green Pummal, a well known NGO actively involved in waste management projects for the last several years. The cost of the project amounted to Rs. 22 lakhs. The fund for the purpose was raised by Exinora Green Pummal from different donors.

This plant is capable of treating 300 Kg. of organic waste every day. Bio methanization technology is applied for this process. The process involves the breaking down of the waste substances into simpler substances for the consumption of microorganisms resulting in the by production of methane and carbon dioxide.   25-30 Cum Biogas is being generated every day. This gas is utilized for power generation. 40 KWH of electricity is generated every day. It is used for meeting the in-house requirement for the project and for street lighting. 50 N0s. of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) have been installed nearby the streets and these are working with green electricity.

The specialty of this plant is that it is totally a pre-fabricated one, made of Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic (FRP). The system is equipped with three anaerobic pre-digesters and three Modified Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (MUASB) reactors connected in series. The treated liquid that comes out from the plant is utilized as fertilizer and a part of this treated slurry is re used for the operation of the plant with the help of an inbuilt slurry loop system. The slurry is of high nutrient content and does not have any polluting properties like that of chemical fertilizers.  The Biogas generated from the pre-digesters and digesters are passed through a non return unit and collected in a centralized synthetic gas collector. This gas is passed through a gas scrubber and after scrubbing it is used as fuel in a 100% Biogas engine for the generation of electricity.

The main advantage of the prefabricated system is the saving of space and time required
for the installation. Without much expense all parts of the plant can be shifted from one place to other if necessary. It is maintenance free and uses only minimum moving parts. The treated solid manure can be removed from the pre-digester. Through the introduction of pre-digesters, there is no chance for formation of scum in the digesters. Predigesting also helps in better performance of the reactor as the physical conditions can be maintained at required. The expected life of the plant is more than15 years. The Environmental benefit derived through the installation of the plant is equivalent to the emission reduction of more than 100 metric tones of CO2 every year. It also solves the problem of waste disposal and the other negative impacts like pollution, diseases, unaesthetic appearance of the city etc related to it.

Location of the project

Sri Sankar Nagar, Pammal, Chennai - 75, Tamilnadu state, India
Distance from the Chennai International Airport – 4 Km.
Project promoted by - Exinora Green Pummal
Main Sponsor- Sam Foundation .

Technical Details of Waste to Electricity ptoject

Treatment Capacity of the Plant  -           300 Kg. of Organic Waste

Type of feed materials  -           All degradable materials like 
                   cooked food waste, vegetable, fruits,fish and meat waste

No. of Anaerobic Pre-digesters    -           3 Nos

Volume of each Pre-digesters   -           3,500 litters

No. of Digesters         -           3 Nos.

Volume of digesters       -           20,000 litters
Gas generation per day  -           25 – 30 Cum

Use of gas                 -           Electricity Generation

Generator (100% biogas model)   -           5 KW

Stand by generator (Duel Fuel model)    -           3 KW

Organic fertilizer output per day  -           Liquid Fertilizer – 300 liter
                                                                                    Solid Fertilizer   – 30 Kg.
Electricity Generation    -           35 KWH

Number of hours     -           7 Hrs. ( Day time 3 Hrs.,
       Evening – 6 pm to 10 pm )
Number of lights installed       -           50 Nos. of 11 W CFL

In-house requirement of electricity           -For the operation of pump in slurry loop system, pump in Gas scrubber, gas pump, de-humidifier etc.

Manpower required for the operation of plant-   One operator + One part time supervisor

Annual benefits derived from the project

Hygienic disposal of organic waste            -         109 Metric Tons
Bio Gas produced                                      -    10,950 Cum
Electricity generated                                    -    16,425 KWH
Liquid fertilizer                                             -   109,500 Litres
Solid manure                                               -    10 Metric Tons
Co2 emission reduction                               -     3105 Metric Tons
Employment generated                               -     1450        Man days.
(Including involvement of waste collectors)

This type of decentralized waste treatment system helps the community to participate in de centralized waste disposal, green energy generation , reducing pollution and in  climate protection activities also . To achieve this goal BIOTECH is trying our level best.

Waste to Electricity-Kozhanchery - a business model

Business Model and Financial viability of
Integrated Bio Waste treatment Electricity Generation Project
 installed by BIOTECH, Kerala
 In Kozhanchery Grama Panchayath, Pathanamthitta District, Kerala

2010 , Kozhanchery Grama Panchayath is one of the thickly populated Grama panchayaths in the Pathanamthitta District. The town area includes the markets, hospitals, auditorium and other trade centers. Large quantities of wastes in the form of waste from fish, vegetables, meat etc.  are being generated every day in the market. Lack of proper waste treatment system had created lot of health and environmental problems. The Grama Panchayath committee decided to overcome these problems. The Grama Panchayath committee approached BIOTECH for implementing a waste treatment system suitable for the treatment of entire waste generated from the Kozhanchery town.

Awareness to the Panchayath Committee
As a first stage of the project BIOTECH conducted an awareness programme for the Panchayath members about the hygienic disposal of waste and about the possibility of generating of electricity from the waste.

Feasibility Study
The technical experts of the BIOTECH conducted a feasibility study and collected the data about the quantity and types of waste generated in the market. They also visited the site where the Panchayath propose to construct the waste treatment plant and found it feasible.

Submission of concept proposal
Based on the details of the feasibility study BIOTECH prepared a concept proposal which includes, brief description about the waste treatment plant, rough cost, return on investment, the terms for the installation and submitted to the Panchayath for approval The Panchayath committee approved the concept proposal given by the BIOTECH and requested BIOTECH to submit a detailed proposal.

Submission of DPR
BOTECH prepared Detailed Project Report (DPR) and submitted to the panchayath. The
panchayah committee approved the DPR and gave the work order. The panchayath handed over the proposed site to the BIOTECH for the implementation of the project.

Signing of the agreement
After getting approval of the DPR an agreement was made between the panchayath authority and Biotech for the implementation of the project. 

Installation and activation of the plant
After signing the agreement BIOTECH started the project in the panhayath and completed the project in a specified time limit according to the agreement.
After the installation of the plant the technical experts of the BIOTECH activated the plant using BIOTECH culture and cow dung as an initial feed.

Commissioning of the plant
After the activation of the plant BIOTECH conducted trail runs for a period of 7 days. During this time the panchayath president and other members visited the plant and observed the functioning of the plant.

Signing of agreement for operation of the plant
At the time of the commissioning of the plant an agreement was made between the BIOTECH and the panchayath for the future operation of the plant.

Selection of operators and training
After signing of the operational agreement, BIOTECH selected three unemployed youths from the Kozhanchery Panchayath and trained them to work as operators.

Awareness Program for merchants in the Market
BIOTECH conducted an awareness program to the merchants of the market. And to educated them about the systematic collection and the hygienic disposal of the waste generated in the market. BIOTECH also demonstrated the functioning of the plant.

Daily operation of the plant.
The plant installed in the market is functioning regularly. The operation of the plant is carried out by the operators with the support of the supervisors of the BIOTECH. The generated electricity from the plant is being used for the lighting the lamps installed in the market area and also the operation of the electrical equipments in the plant.

Present status of the Project
Every day the electricity is being generated three times. That is from 3.30 to 6.30 in the morning, from 12 Noon to 2 PM in the afternoon and from 6.30 to 9.30 in the evening.   This is the first integrated waste treatment plant installed in Kerala. Every day lots of people including research students are visiting the plants for studying about the operation of the plant.
Operational arrangements

The regular operation of the plant is under the supervision of BIOTECH. A part time supervisor is monitoring the performance of the plant and issuing necessary guidelines to the operators. There are 4 operators working on regular basis for the effective operation of the plant. This arrangement helps BIOTECH to provide performance guarantee of the project.

Technical Details of Plant
Total treatment capacity   -           5000 Kg.
Biomethanation plant    -           2000 Kg
Bio-incinerator        -           3000 Kg
Design of the plant   -           Floating Dome Model
Specialty of the plant  -           Slurry loop system with anaerobic pre-digester
Capacity of the generator   -           20 KW
No. of lights installed    -           200 Nos. (11 Watt CFL)

Benefits from the Scheme
Grama Panchayaths :– The bio degradable waste generated from fish and vegetable
markets can be treated hygienically in the same day it is generated. The electricity bill for street lights can be reduced considerably. Hygienic surroundings can be maintained inside the market.

Environmental Benefits
Every day 200 Cum biogas is being captured from the organic waste. This way large quantity of methane emission can be controlled.
The growth of flies, street dogs, rats etc. which are feeding on wastes can be controlled.

Replicability of the Scheme
Due to the efficient performance and trouble free functioning the plant, more than 65 Grama Panchayaths had came forward inviting BIOTECH for conducting feasibility study and installation of the plant. Out of this 52 projects had already been completed and 8 projects are nearing completion. We expect that in the near future about all the Grama Panchayaths, Public and Private institutions will come forward to install similar type of projects through out Kerala and also outside Kerala.

More information about waste to electricity projects are available from-
 Director, BIOTECH, PB.NO.520, M.P.AppanRoad, Vazhuthacadu,Thycadu.P.O,
Trivandrum.Pin.695 014, KERALA, INDIA, Tel.+91 471-2332179,2 321909,

An interview published by Power Today

Prefabricated Portable biogas Plant

Prefabricated biogas Plant

Disposal of organic waste is one of the major problem faced by local self governments as well as general public . Many of the centralized waste treatment plants are facing problems due to various reasons . To overcome this issue decentralized waste treatment technologies are one of the best option .

With the help of a family size biogas plant anyone can dispose their own organic waste hygenically without any environmental Issues . Traditional model gobargas plants are not suitable for this purpose. Prefabricated plants are suitable for the areas where people leving in urban areas due to the non availability of  sufficant space for the installation of traditional plants.

To meet the requirement of  prefabricated
family size biogas plants, I have designed a portable biogas plant made of fibreglass reinforced plastic [FRP].  These plants are light weight and easy to install. With in 4 hrs. the installation can be completed. Just like a refrigerator or washing machine anyone can buy it from shop. The expected life of a plant is 15 to 20 years . There are different capacities are available from 1 cum to 6 Cum.  A one cum biogas plant is suitable for a 5 member family. It is capable to produce 2 hrs. cooking gas everyday from 2kg of kitchen leftover. The treated organic materials discharged from the plant is in liquid farm. It can be used as organic fertilizer .

Further details about this plants are available from

What is Biogas plant

BIOGAS plant

Biogas plant is a combination of digester and gas holder  either a single chamber or
separate chambers depending upon the design of the plant. There should be an inlet portion in the digester  for the input of organic matter and an out let portion for discharging the treated organic materials from the digester.

The fermentation process takes place in the digester portion of the plant. Single stage or multi stage digestion facilities have been incorporated with each biogas plant based on the design. The biogas produced will be collected in the gas collector portion of the plant.

Many  categories of biogas plants have been developed  in different models. Biogas plants can broadly be classified based on the application such as  domestic , Institutional and commercial.

Three categories of biogas plants are available these days. Those are batch type, semi continuous type and continuous type.

Many new models of plants have been developed in different parts of the world to
provide suitable and efficient service to the customers. The popular models are, Fixed dome gas collector, Floating dome gas collector, RCC digester with Flexible gas collector, Geomembrane digester, Tube digester , Lagoon digester etc.

Biogas plants are also available as portable, prefabricated and constructed at site. Biogas plants can be constructed using locally available construction materials.

Different government and nongovernmental agencies in regional, national and 
international levels are actively involved in the promotion of family size biogas  plants for providing clean fuel, organic manure and better sanitation facilities for rural peoples.  In urban areas domestic biogas plants can be installed for the effective treatment of organic leftovers from the kitchen as well as from the garden. The Biogas produced through this process can be used to replace LPG .

Industrial level and commercial level biogas plants are being installed by many
reputed companies in almost all the developed countries for the production of biogas. In these plants biogas produced is being used for the production of electricity and heat. The purified biogas can be used as a fuel for running vehicles and also a fuel for different industrial applications. The treated substrate (Organic material) discharged from the biogas plant is being utilized as an enriched organic manure.

Biogas plants have a bright future as green source of energy. It can be utilized to improve the life style of the peoples of different categories in the community.

Those who are interested to study more details about  various biogas plants  can join the online course  available in the  following web sites.